1. Drterminers + Singurar Noun
each, every, either, neither, many a
Every man goes there.
Many a student was absent yesterday.
Many a student = Many students
2. Determiners + Plura Noun
many, several, a few, few, fewer, fewest, quite a few, a number of, large number of, a great number of
He sells many books.
Jonh has several books at home.
Quite a few students were absent yesterday.
A number of accidents have occurred.
A (great or largre or good) number of students are allowed to go home.
3. Diterminers + Mass Noun (Uncountable Noun)
much, a little, little, less, least, quite a little, a good deal of, a great deal of, a great quantity of, a large quantity of, a large amount of
This glass doesn't hold much water, it only holds a little.
Nack spent a (great or good) quantity of sugar.
We need a (great or large) quantity of sugar.
Her father has a large amount of money.
4. Determiners + Plural Count Noun (or mass noun )
some, any, a lot of, lots of, plenty of, more, most, all
Jonh has a lot of friends. Jonh has a lot of free time.
Jonh a has lots of friends. Jonh has lots of free time.
There are plenty of trees in the gardent.
We have plenty of time.
More students are needed to do this work.
More many is needed to do this work.
Noun Adjuncts (noun + noun)
In English we can put two nouns together. The first noun is used as an adjective to modify the second noun and is called a noun adjunct. The first noun is almost always singular because it follows the rule for adjectives, which do not have plural forms in English.
N1 N2 can mean that
a. N1 is a kind of N2 (a grammar book is a kind of book)
b. N1 is an object of an implied verb (an apple tree is a tree that produces apples)
It is important to understand that N2 is the thing and N1 is the kind or type:
a rose bush is a bush
a wrist watch is a watch
computer paper is paper
N1 is singular, even if the phrase is plural.
My mother planted a rose bush in the garden.
I bought a new table lamp.
Bobby takes the school bus to school.
The school ordered fifty new grammar books.
That man makes bird cages.
Mrs. Taylor bought some new baby clothes.
We can use a number with N1 to make a compound adjective. Since the number and noun make one unit, we use a hyphen to join them. Note that N1 remains singular because it is being used as an adjective.
a three-car garage
a ten-speed bicycle
a twenty-dollar bill
If we use a number to refer to the second noun (how many), we do not use a hyphen:
two grammar books
five rose bushes
We can use a number to refer to the second noun (how many) and a number with the first noun (compound adjective). In that case, there is no hyphen after the first number, but the second number is still used with a hyphen because it forms a compound adjective.
two ten-dollar bills
four three-bedroom homes
ทำหน้าที่ส่วนหนึ่งเป็น verb และอีกส่วนเป็น adjective
เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของ Continuos Tense
- She is running.
- She was running.
ตามหลัง verb of sensation เช่น see, feel gear, smell, watch, notice, observe เมื่อหมายความว่ากำลังกระทำ
- I saw her coming
- He heard me shutting the window.
เป็น adjective ประกอบคำนาม
- A boiling kettle is on the stove.
- Look at the swimming fish.
ตามหลังกรรมของคำกริยา find, keep, leave, catch, set, get, send, discover, bring, draw, imagine, paint, show
- The telegram sent him hurrying to Songkla.
- He kept me waiting the whole day.
ตามหลัง Verb to have แสดงผล และใช้กับ can't, won't มีความหมายว่า อนุญาต
- The doctor will woon have you walking.
- I'll haveyou all laughing.
ใช้ในรูป participial phrase ดังนี้
The man stading there is John's uncle.
- The man is John's uncle. He is standing there.
- The man who is standing there is John's uncle.
She was accomanied by her mother.
- She was accomanied by her mother.
ตามหลัง conjunctions บางตัวเช่น when, while, as if, although,before, after เช่น
- Although playing all day, he was't tired.
- He held out his hand, as if asking for money.
- Seeing a snake, I ran away.
- We stood at the gate, waiting for a taxi.
ได้แก่ - Infinitive with "to"
- Infinitive without "to"
Infinitive with "to"
To swim is a good sport.
I have no time to write a letter.
A. ขยาย verb
She shouted to tell him to be careful.
= She shouted in order to tell him to be careful.
B. ขยาย adjective
The lesson is difficult to understand.
C. ขยาย adverb
They tried hard to pass the examination.
= They tried hard in order to pass the examination.
4. enough.....to verb
It isn't large enough (for her) to take seven people.
Our team didn't play well enough (for us) to win the price.\
There's enough turkey (for him) to make a sandwich.
5. Too....to verb
The water is too deep (for the baby) to swim.
The bird flies too high (for you) to shoot.
There were too many calls (for her) to answer.
There was too much applause (for them) to hear the announcer.
6. Verb + to verb
afford, attempt, care, decide, demand, expect, hope, intend, manage, mean, plan, refuse, try, etc.
I didn't mean to hurt your feelings.
I am planning to have a party.
7. Verb + object (noun or pronoun) + to verb
Advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, command, forbid, force, invite, order, permit, persuade, require, tell, warn etc.
She advised me to look for a job.
The judge ordered him to pay a fine.
8. Verb + to verb/or verb + object + to verb.
I want to leave now.
I want him to leave now.
Infinitive without "to"
1. Auxiliary Verb (Helping Verb หรือ Modal Verb + Verb แท้ไม่ผันรูป)
He will buy you a bicycle. You may leave before six today.
You had better go to bed early. I would rather die than suffer.
2. I prefer to talk rather than listen. = ฉันชอบคุยมากกว่าฟัง (rather than + Verb แท้ไม่ผันรูป)
3. She did nothing but cry. (but = except = ยกเว้น + verb แท้ไม่ผันรูป)
4. Verb + object + infinitive without "to"
make I made him come.
let Please let me see it.
have I had the barber cut my hair.
5. Verb of sense
see I saw him hit (hitting) the ball.
feel I felt the weather become (becoming) warm.
hear I heard her sing (singing).
watch I watched Dang clean (cleaning) the floor.
observe I observed the doctor perform (performing) the operation.
notice I noticed something move (moveing)